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言语 学习难度

Which languages are easiest -- and most difficult -- for native English speakers to learn?
关于 以英语为母语的人来说,哪种言语 最容易学,哪种又是最难的?(最易与最难学习的言语 是什么)

With so much time on our hands during lockdown, many of us have entertained the idea of expanding our horizons.
在疫情时代 ,许多人想运用 大把的时间 来坦荡 眼界。
Learning a foreign language is an obvious option.
学习外语是显而易见 的一个选择。
It's one that I would personally endorse: My individual circumstances were such that, by the age of 12, I could speak German, Greek and English, so languages became my passion and my hobby.
我小我公家 赞许 这一点:拿我自己 来说,在我12岁的时间 ,我会说德语、希腊语和英语,以是 言语 成了 我的热情和喜欢 。
My advice is that you should learn a language because you're also interested in the culture and the country.
我建议,您也对文明 和国度 感兴味 的话,您应当 学习一种言语 。
If you like Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky, learn Russian. If you're going to live in Bangkok, learn Thai. If your partner is Mexican, learn Spanish.
若是 你喜欢托尔斯泰和陀思妥耶夫斯基,那就学俄语吧。若是 你要住在曼谷,那就学泰语。若是 你的同伴是墨西哥人,那就学习西班牙语。
And remember: Although you can get by as a tourist in, possibly, weeks, mastering a language is a long-term commitment taking years, not months.
记着:虽然你要旅游时可以在几周内学习到一门言语 ,但若要掌握则是一个恒久的历程,需求 几年的时间 ,而不是仅仅数月就可以 。

Language and diplomacy言语 与外交

After World War II, the United States expanded its influence around the world by training its embassy staff in the local languages of the countries they were in.
第二次天下 大战后,美国经过 训练其在各国大使馆中的事情职员 习适当 地言语 来扩展 其在天下 各地的浸染 力。
Thankfully for language learners today, the US Foreign Service Institute's language books and tapes can be found online.
值得庆幸的是,关于 明天 的言语 学习者来说,美外洋交效劳 学院的言语 书籍和磁带在网上就可以 找到。
These are the best free courses available, though you can still detect a touch of the Cold War in the syllabus ("Where is the state clothing shop?").
尽管 你依然 可以在课程纲要 中发现一点热战 的痕迹(例如:“州服装店在那里 ?”),但这些都是最好的收费 课程。
Best of all, the FSI has done us a great service by classifying languages in degrees of difficulty for English speakers.
最主要 的是,FSI为香蕉视频app官方看片提供了很棒的一项效劳 是,它为说英语的人将言语 难度举行 了分类。
 Here are a few examples, ranked in order of the number of hours it takes the average learner to master them from lowest to highest:
以下是一些例子,凭证 学习者掌握这些手艺 所需的时间 从低到高排序:
 

Easiest (about 600 hours of study)最易学的(学习约莫600个小时

After just 600 hours of study, you'll have no trouble fitting in on the streets of Paris.
只需 学习600个小时,你就会绝不艰辛 地顺应 巴黎的街道。
Along with Dutch and Norwegian, the popular Latin languages -- Italian, French, Spanish and Portuguese -- require about 600 hours of study to achieve "general professional proficiency" in speaking and reading.
与荷兰语和挪威语一样,盛行 的拉丁语系——意大利语、法语、西班牙语和葡萄牙语——需求 约莫600个小时的学习才干 在口语和阅读方面抵达 “一样往常 专业水平 ”。
Of these, Spanish and Italian are the easiest for native English speakers to learn, followed by Portuguese and finally French.
其中,英语为母语的人最容易学习西班牙语和意大利语,其次是葡萄牙语,最后 是法语。
They share many words with English, but it's that common vocabulary that creates "false friends" -- words in different languages that look or sound similar, but differ significantly as meanings have drifted with time. For instance, in Spanish an "embarazada" woman is pregnant, while a French "préservatif" is not something you add to your food, but a condom.
它们和英语有许多配合的词汇,但这些配合的词汇缔造了“假朋侪 ”——在分别 的言语 中,这些词看起来或听起来很相似 ,但随着时间 的推移,意旨 却有很大的分别 。例如,在西班牙语中,“embarazada”是妇女有身了,而在法语中,“
préservatif"不是你添加到食物中的工具,而是喧嚣 套。
While French and Italian are pretty standardized, you must choose whether to learn Latin American Spanish or "castellano," which is spoken in Spain; they differ as much as US English and British English.
虽然法语和意大利语都很尺度,但你必需 选择是学习拉丁美洲的西班牙语照旧西班牙人说的“卡斯蒂亚语”;像美式英语和英式英语一样也是不尽相反 。
The choice is even more striking with Portuguese; long ago I opted for Brazilian and to this day I still can't properly understand speakers from Portugal.
葡萄牙语的选择更惊人 。良久 以前,我选择了巴西语,直到明天 ,我依然 不行 准确 地明白 葡萄牙人说的话。


German (750 hours)德语(750小时

Interested in reading Karl May's "Wild West" series in its original language? You'll need to spend 750 hours mastering German first
想读卡尔·梅(Karl May)的《狂野西部》(Wild West)系列原著吗?首先你需求 花750个小时来掌握德语。.
One of my German teachers used to joke that it takes you a year to say, "I'm traveling on the bus," but once you're on that bus, it's plain sailing.
我的一位德语先生 已经 恶作剧 说,你要花一年的时间 才干 说:“我坐公交去游览 。”可是 一旦你上了那辆公交车,一切就变得很容易了。
With nouns that are masculine, feminine and neutral, verbs that conjugate heavily and an extremely strict syntax, German may appear insurmountable to start with.
德语中有阳性、阴性和中性的名词,动词转变 频仍 ,语法极端 严酷 ,一最先 能够 会让人以为 难以跨越 。
On the other hand, pronunciation and spelling is straightforward and once you learn the -- admittedly many -- rules, that's it.
但另一方面,发音和拼写很简朴 ,一旦你学会了--虽然许多的规则,就可以 了。
You'll also realize why Germans never interrupt you during a conversation: they're waiting to hear the verb at the end to figure out what you were talking about.
你也会明白 为何 德国人在说话 时从不打断你:他们在等着听动词的最后 ,以弄清你在说什么。


Russian (1,100 hours)俄语(1100小时

The big advantage of learning Russian is that, once you're proficient, you can understand other Slav languages like Czech, Polish or Bulgarian.
学习俄语的一大利益是,一旦你熟练 掌握,你就能听懂其他斯拉夫语,如捷克语、波兰语或保加利亚语。
It's also spoken and understood in all former regions of the Soviet Union from Armenia to Kyrgyzstan.
从亚美尼亚到吉尔吉斯斯坦,一切 前苏联地域的人都说这种言语 。
Hidden behind a Cyrillic veil of mystery, it's one of the harder languages to master, so much so that even many Russians speak it incorrectly.
一旦揭开奥秘 的西里尔语面纱,你就会发现,它是一种较难掌握的言语 ,以至于许多俄罗斯人都市说错。
But any literature, music and ballet buff or aspiring astronaut -- Russian is a mandatory subject at NASA -- should study a language with over 500,000 words (some up to 38 characters long), where the letter "e" sounds as e or o and nouns are "alive" or "dead."
但任何文学、音乐、芭蕾喜欢 者或有理想的宇航员——俄罗斯是NASA的一门选修 课——都应当 学习这一门凌驾50万个单词(
有些长达38个字符)的言语 ,其中字母“e”听起来像e或o,名词分“活的”或“死的”。


Arabic (2,200 hours)阿拉伯语(2200小时

It takes the average native English speaker a whopping 2,200 hours to become proficient in Arabic.
英语为母语的人平均 要花2200个小时才干 醒目 阿拉伯语。
There's an urban myth about a pharmaceutical company that advertised an analgesic pill with three non-verbal images for international consumption.
有一个关于一家制药公司的都市神话,该公司用三种非言语 图像为一种麻醉剂 做广告推向天下 。
The left picture depicted a woman with a headache. The middle one showed her swallowing the pill and the right one had her smiling after the pain had subsided.
左图描画 了一个头痛的女人。中央 的那张是她吞下药丸的照片,左边 的那张是她在疼痛衰退 后浅笑 的照片。
It worked everywhere except in the Arab world, which read it from right to left.
在阿拉伯天下 里都适用从右到左举行 阅读。
The direction of reading and the cursive script, which may or may not include vowels, are the two major hurdles for Arab learners.
阅读的倾向 和草书,其中能够 征求 也能够 不征求 元音,是阿拉伯语学习者的两个主要 阻碍 。
Classical Arabic -- the language of the Qur'an -- will make you understood everywhere, but colloquial Arabic may be more useful, because once the locals start conversing with each other, you'll lose the plot.
古阿拉伯语——古兰经言语 ——会让你在任何中央 都能被明白 ,可是 阿拉伯口语能够 更有用,因为 一旦外地 人最先 相互 攀谈,你就会不知所云。
But who can resist a language with eleven words for love, five gradations of swearing and close to 100 words describing a camel?
可是 ,谁能顺从 这一种言语 呢,它有11个表达 爱的单词,5个分别 水平 的诅咒 ,以及接近 100个形貌 骆驼的单词?

Japanese (2,200 hours)日本(2200小时

A country that's enriched the world with sushi, karaoke and manga, Japan has many devotees, especially among gamers and geeks.
日本是一个以寿司、卡拉ok和漫画享誉天下 的国度 ,它有许多喜欢 者,特别 是嬉戏 玩家和极客们。
 
But they are confronted with an extremely challenging language that uses imported Chinese characters (Kanji) cut off from their original meaning as well as two syllabaries -- Hiragana and Katakana (you must learn when to use which).
但他们所面临 的言语 极具应战 性,这种言语 运用 的来自引进的汉字,但已与原意分别 ,还会用到两个假名表——平假名和片假名(
你必需 学会两种假名在何时运用 )。
 
What Japanese you speak also depends on your gender. There's a "rough" language for men and a more "ladylike" language for women, but you must understand both.
你所说的日语也取决于你的性别。女子 用一种“粗俗 ”的言语 ,女人更“淑女”,但你必需 同时明白 这两种言语 。
By all means start a course of Japanese at home, but if you want to progress at all, pencil in a month of intensive practice in the Land of the Rising Sun.
你虽然可以在家里最先 一门日语课程,可是 若是 想行进 的话,要在日本举行 一个月的强化训练 。

Cantonese/Mandarin (2,200 hours each)粤语/深刻 话(每种2200小时)

One of the challenges of learning Mandarin is learning all of the characters.
学习深刻 话的应战 之一就是学习一切 的汉字。
Each Chinese dialect is effectively another language but Mandarin (Putonghua in Chinese, which means the common language) is considered the official tongue in modern China.They all share (roughly) one evolving writing system, referred to as 口语 (or written language) invented for administering a large, diverse empire.
中国的每一种方言理想 上都是另一种言语 ,但深刻 话(
深刻 话的意旨 是通用言语 )被以为 是现代 中国的官方言语 。他们(能够 )都运用 一致 个演化的誊写 系统 ,称为口语 来管理 这个严重 、多样化的帝国。
To complicate the matter further, there are two main types of written Chinese characters under the same writing system: the traditional Chinese used in Hong Kong and Taiwan and the simplified Chinese in mainland China (standardized and simplified in the 1950s to increase literacy in the country).
更严重 的是,在一致 誊写 系统 下,有两种主要 的誊写 汉字:香港和台湾运用 的是繁体汉字,中国大陆运用 的是简体字(
在20世纪50年月 ,为了提高 国民的识字率,对汉字举行 了尺度化和简化)。
For example, fly is written as 飛 in traditional Chinese and 飞 in simplified Chinese. They're basically the same character written in two different ways but pronounced differently when spoken in different dialect.
例如,fly繁体字写成“飛”,简体字写成“飞”。它们基本 上是一致 个字,用两种分别 的方式誊写 ,但在分别 的方言中发音分别 。
Confused yet?
哈,晕不?
Each written word when spoken is mutually incomprehensible between a Mandarin speaker in Beijing and a Cantonese speaker in Hong Kong. If you think that's odd, consider our number system: the symbol "9" is universally recognized but it's pronounced "nine" in English and "devet" in Slovenian.
在北京说深刻 话的人和在香港说粤语的人,说出来的每个 字都是相互 听生疏 的。若是 你以为 这很希奇 ,想想香蕉视频app官方看片的数字表中“9”这个符号是公认的,但它在英语中读作“nine”,在斯洛文尼亚语中读作“devet”。
Every word must be memorized separately as you can't guess its pronunciation from the script -- but one could say the same of English if you consider plough, dough and tough.
每个字都必需 脱离 记忆 ,因为 你无法从字母中猜出它的发音——但若是 你看一下plough, dough 与 tough这三个单词的字母,就能说出同类的英语。
Meanwhile, dictionaries list words according to stroke count.
同时,字典会凭证 笔划 数列出中文字。
These go from one to over 60 strokes. The archaic character zhé -- has 64 strokes.
从1划到60多划。古汉字“𪚥”,有64划。
And then there are the pronunciation challenges.
尚有 发音方面的应战 。
In the days of the British Empire, if you were going to be sent to Hong Kong as a civil servant, you had to pass a musical test first because all Chinese languages are tonal.
在大英帝国时期,若是 你要被派往香港当公务员,你必需 先经过 音乐实验 ,因为 一切 的汉字繁体字都是有声调 的。
There are four tones in Mandarin: high pitch (say G in a musical scale), rising pitch (like from C to G), falling (from G to C) and falling low then rising (C to B to G) -- and if you think that's difficult, there are nine tones in Cantonese.
深刻 话有四个声调 :平调(
好比音阶中的G调)、升调(好比从C调到G调)、降调(从G调到C调)、先降后升调(从C调到B调到G调)——若是 你以为 这很难,那么粤语有九个声调 。
In other words, if you are tone-deaf you might as well give up now.
换句话说,若是 你五音不全,你最好如今 就坚持 吧。

英文内容来自于CNN